全新的高速铁路运输服务俄铁物流总裁专访(中英文)

[罗戈导读]本期我们非常感谢俄铁物流总裁瓦连季克维亚切斯拉夫 (中文名:伟澜) ,接受探索新丝路的独家专访,非常感谢俄铁物流顾问和中国区代表杨杰的支持。

New Silkroad Discovery (探索新丝路) appreciates this opportunity to interview with Mr. Viacheslav Valentik, CEO of RZDL. We thank the coordination of Mr. Jet Young, Consultant and Representative of RZDL in China. We sincerely appreciate the cooperation and patience from RZDL throughout this interview.

1. 来自中国的快递服务是否会改变欧亚大陆的供应链系统?Will services of express delivery of cargo from China change supply chain system in Eurasia?

我们认为一带一路倡议早已经极大地改变了中国到欧洲的供应链。各种货物运送的时间已经缩短,包括汽车零部件和电子设备的部件。中欧间加快的货物运送时间也改变了那些在依赖从中国采购的制造型企业的生产计划。同样,中国的制造型企业也受此影响。此外,一带一路倡议也使得企业可以减少库存从而加快他们的现金流,从这个意义上来说,欧洲大陆的企业向“零库存生产”目标迈进了一步。

One can say that “One Belt, One Road” initiative has already significantly changed the routes of cargo supplies from China to Europe. The time of various goods’ delivery has reduced, including the delivery of auto parts and components for electronic devices. Expedited delivery from China has already essentially changed the planning system in companies, which base their production of components from China. The same changes affected Chinese manufactures. Moreover, “One Belt, One Road” has allowed consignors to reduce warehouse stock and the velocity of money, while making Eurasian continent in general closer to just-in-time delivery.

2. RZD Logistics在2018年从中国运往欧洲有多少TEU,包括过境?How many TEUs did RZD Logistics ship in 2018 from China to Europe, including transit?

总体来说,2018年俄铁物流完成了中欧间的铁路集装箱运量达到了108 000TEU。2019年,我们计划进一步提高现有业务量。

Overall, in 2018, RZD Logistics shipped by rail from/to China 108 000 TEU. In 2019, we intend to increase this volume.

3. RZD Logistics如何定位自己?作为运营商还是货运代理,提供物流服务?How does RZD Logistics position itself? As an operator or a freight forwarder, which provides logistics services?

俄铁物流自成立伊始便致力于向我们的客户提供完整物流服务一方面,我们为中国的班列平台公司提供境外铁路运输代理服务,包括从所有三个口岸的操作:多斯特克(通过哈萨克斯坦)、后贝加尔(通过俄罗斯)以及纳沃什基(通过蒙古国)。但是,从另一方面,我们也向我们操作的这些中欧班列贡献货量,从这个意义上来说,我们也有货代的身份,主要通过我们的子公司“远东陆桥”来完成。

Since its very inception RZD Logistics has always adhered to complex approach to providing logistics services on the one hand, we are a train operator for platform companies and work at all three border points: Dostyk (through Kazakhstan), Zabaykalsk (through Russia) and Naushki (through Mongolia). But, at the same time we switch cargo to these trains, being, in this case, a forwarder. Our subsidiary Far East Land Bridge (FELB) is actively involved in this process in Europe and China.

2019年,俄铁物流将继续全面拓展我们的业务,不仅包括新的线路,亦包括新的产品,诸如“铁路飞行Rail Jet”这样极具吸引力的产品利用北京至莫斯科的国际列车的行李车运送货物,全程站到站仅需6天。

In 2019, RZD Logistics is planning to further develop all areas of its business, including working on new routes’ and modern logistics services, such as a highly promising project of the RZD Logistics Rail Jet delivery of goods from Beijing to Moscow in 6 days in baggage rail cars of passenger trains.

这将是一个全新的高速铁路运输服务,适合各种各样的货物,比如电商货物。因该服务基于现有的北京与莫斯科之间的国际旅客列车,因此其运行时效可以精确到分钟计。另一个我们正在积极开发的新产品是中国经圣彼得堡布隆卡港口至北欧的海铁联运服务,可以到达鹿特丹、安特卫普、汉堡、奥斯陆和赫尔辛基。这条新线路将绕开现有中欧班列进入欧洲的拥堵点,并且将有助于增加中国与丹麦、瑞典、挪威、芬兰以及德国等这些北欧国家间的贸易。

This is a brand new service of high speed railway shipments of various cargo, including e-commerce goods, by passenger trains, which guarantees delivery to Moscow and Beijing with accuracy down to a minute. Another service, which our company is actively developing, is a new multimodal transit route from China to port Bronka and from there by sea to the ports of North Europe, including Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg, Oslo and Helsinki. The new route will help to avoid delays at entrance points to Europe and will contribute to the development of trade relations between China and such countries, as Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Germany and others.

4. 你能评论一下TransContainer的最新变化吗?Could you comment on the latest changes in TransContainer?

俄铁集装箱公司是我们长期的合作伙伴。我们共同开发中国通过后贝加尔过境俄罗斯的业务。然而,所有关于俄铁集装箱公司近期变化的问题应直接致信于俄铁集装箱公司更为适合。

TransContainer is a long-standing partner of RZD Logistics. We jointly develop transit shipments from China across the border point Zabaykalsk. Nevertheless, all questions regarding any changes in TransContainer should be better addressed directly to the company.

5. 你如何设法保持俄罗斯,白俄罗斯和哈萨克斯坦之间的利益平衡? RZD Logistics计划在2019年运送多少列火车和20英尺集装箱?您如何评估多条铁路运输走廊的潜力?横跨阿拉山口 - 多斯特克,二连浩特,满洲里 -  Zabaykalsk,Dobra,Chop或Kaliningrad等。RZD Logistics会否将集中精力支持某些铁路走廊?例如通过满洲里和Zabaykalsk,或将努力保持各种运输走廊的平衡?How do you manage to keep the balance of interests between Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan? How many trains and 20-foot containers does RZD Logistics plan to ship in 2019? How do you evaluate the potential of multiple railway transport corridors? Across Alashankou to Dostyk, Erenhot, Manzhouli Zabaykalsk, Dobra, Chop or Kaliningrad, etc. Will RZD Logistics focus its efforts on the support of some certain railway corridors, for instance, through Manzhouli and Zabaykalsk or will strive to maintain balance by developing various transport corridors?

根据俄罗斯总统弗拉迪米尔普京的指示,由远东至俄罗斯西部边界的集装箱货物的过境运输时间至2024年应缩短至7天,过境俄罗斯的铁路集装箱货运量应比目前增加4倍。俄铁物流认为上述目标只有充分利用所有过境通道才有可能实现。作为俄罗斯国家铁路公司的一部分,我们意识到单一通道的基础设施不可能应对所有的压力,基础设施的使用应该合理、有效。这是我们致力于发展所有过境通道的原因,当然首先是满足客户的需求。我们的目标是向我们的客户提供最高水准的服务和最短的运送时间。

According to Russian President Vladimir Putin’s decrees, by the year 2024 Russia has to reduce the delivery time for containers from the Far East to the Western border of Russia to 7 days, whereas the volume of railway container transit should be increased by 4 times. We at RZD Logistics realize that such progress is possible only by using all functioning transport corridors. By being a part of the RZD Holding, we are aware of the fact that one route will not cope with all pressure on infrastructure, which should be used proportionally and effectively. This is why RZD Logistics is developing all available transport corridors, taking into consideration, first of all, consignors’needs. Our goal is to offer clients the highest level of service and the shortest time of delivery.

6. 您如何评估Brest-Malaszewicze和Dostyk- Alashankou边境点的拥堵问题?How do you evaluate the problem of congestion at border points Brest-Malaszewicze and Dostyk- Alashankou?

极端天气状况影响着口岸过境操作。就布列斯特和马拉舍维奇站来说,我们看到拥堵情况比较突出。造成拥堵的原因,当然首先是中国至欧洲西向货量的急剧增加,结合波兰铁路现有的基础设施,操作这些量变得困难。这是为何,俄铁物流不断地寻求机会利用不同的转运通道来开发至欧洲的新路线,比如刚才我们提到的布隆卡港口。此外,我们亦在努力优化我们的物流流程。我们将实现去程回程货量100%平衡作为我们的发展目标,我们看到了年复一年积极的变化。若干年前,这一问题非常突出,但是今天我们看到了非常显著的改善。2018年,通过满洲里/后贝加尔的过境运输量去程回程比达到了81%,在特定月份(比如2018年9月),去回程比达到了100%。

Extreme weather conditions sometimes can affect the working regime of border crossings. As far as Malaszewicze and Brest stations are concerned, we really see high congestion there. This can, first of all, be explained by the extreme growth of transit from China to Europe, which makes it hard for the infrastructure of Polish Railways to coordinate such flow. This is the reason, why RZD Logistics is constantly working on new opportunities to use various transport routes to Europe, for example, deliver cargo through the above mentioned port of Bronka. We also continue our work on optimization of all logistics processes. Our company sets the goal to achieve 100% balance between WB/EB trains and we see that the situation is improving year by year. Several years ago, this problem was much more of an issue, but today we see visible improvements. As a result of 2018, the average balance of WB and ЕB flows through the border crossing Zabaykalsk-Manzhouli was 81%, reaching 100% in certain months (for example, in September, 2018).

7. 在旺季的时候,过境集装箱平台的数量减少,您能评论一下这种情况吗?Could you comment on the situation, when the number of container platforms at border crossings is reducing during high seasons?

我们可以说随着过境货物的增加,车板数量面临着一定短缺。整个市场在很长的时间内已经经历了这种短缺。如今几乎每个车板公司都在下订单建造新的车板,2019年这些新建造的车板将逐步进入市场被投入运营。尽管如此,随着过境货量的不断增加,一定程度的车板短缺问题将仍然存在。

We can say that sometimes there is a certain deficit of container platforms due to essential increase of transit shipments volume. Of course, the market has been experiencing this deficit for a long time. Nowadays, nearly each operator of rail cars has placed orders for new container platforms’ construction and in the course of 2019 they will be entering the market. Nevertheless, taking into consideration the continuing growth of transit, a certain deficit of rail cars sometimes can be tangible.

8. 据我所知,铁路运价(费率)每年都在变化。预计2019年也会增加吗?您如何评价UTLC在从中国到欧洲的货运市场上的活动?As far as I know, railroad tariff (rate) changes every year. Is it expected to increase in 2019? How do you evaluate the activity of UTLC on the market of shipments from China to Europe?

铁路运费包括两个部分过境俄罗斯段的铁路运费(由俄铁总公司公布)和车板使用费用。由于俄铁总公司的努力,铁路运费本身在过去的七年多,其实没有发生任何变化,这也是发展过境俄罗斯货量的重要因素。第二部分有上涨的压力,因为车板本身的价格上涨。这是一个市场因素。虽然如此,车板短缺的规模是可预期的,我们预计2019年过境运费不会有大幅度的增长。从我们公司自身来说,将尽所能,增加车板的来回使用效率,以确保运价维持在当前水平。

Railroad rate consists of 2 parts transit tariff of JSC RZD and tariff for the use of rail cars. The first one has not changed for more than seven years, thanks to the RZD Holding, and presents an important contribution to the development of transit shipments. The second one tends to increase, because of the rail cars’ price. This is just a market factor. Nonetheless, the scale of the deficit is set and RZD Logistics does not expect significant growth of rates in 2019. We, for our part, will do everything possible, in order to increase the turnaround of rolling stock and thereby try to keep the rates at the current level.

述及联合交通物流公司,它的建立就是为了发展中国哈萨克斯坦俄罗斯白俄罗斯欧洲的铁路集装箱过境业务。我们看到联合交通物流公司正在这方面积极努力,完成各种任务,我们祝愿它能取得更大的成功。

As far as UTLC is concerned, this company was created precisely for the development of transit shipments across the route China-Kazakhstan-Russia-Belarus-Europe. We see that the company is actively working in this area, solving all tasks it faces, and we wish it further professional success.

9. 中国物流公司(渝新欧、成都、ZIH等)拥有许多铁路平台。现在预订班列平台将通过这些公司进行,如FELB、RTSB、RCO等。是否将来有机会直接通过RZD Logistics预订班列?Chinese logistics companies (YuXinOu, Chengdu, ZIH, etc) have many railway platforms. Now booking of platforms for trains will be performed through such companies, as FELB, RTSB, RCO, etc. Will there be an opportunity to book trains directly and through RZD Logistics?

俄铁物流早已与上述中国班列平台公司直接开展业务,他们直接向我们订舱。所以,这个不是是否可能的问题,而是我们正在做的。我们保持着日常的业务沟通,我们中国的合作伙伴不断向我们直接发送运输委托,过境业务、去程班列和回程班列。我们向我们的客户提供所有可能的过境通道,这个也是我们有别于行业内的其他伙伴的地方。

RZD Logistics already cooperates with all these companies and they book trains directly with us. Thus, not only is it possible this is exactly how we are working now. Our company contacts them on a daily basis and they regularly place orders with us for transit, export and import trains. This happens mainly due to the fact that RZD Logistics offers its Chinese partners all possible routes of delivery, unlike other market players. 

10. 为了增加中国和欧洲之间的货物周转量,运输服务的价格应该稳定,可用并且对发货人有吸引力。这种情况下的价格起着至关重要的作用,但铁路费率只是部分由中国设定,其他部分取决于独联体国家。中国政府积极补贴铁路中转货运,以刺激贸易增长。 RZD Logistics计划采取哪些措施来增加过境货物流量和往返中国的货物?In order to increase the volume of goods’ turnover between China and Europe, the price of transit services should be stable, available and attractive for consignors. The price in this case plays a crucial role, but railroad rates only partly are set by China, their other part depends on CIS countries. Chinese government actively subsidies railway transit shipments, in order to stimulate trade growth. What measures does RZD Logistics plan to implement, in order to increase the transit cargo flow and shipments to/from China?

我们相信中国的国有班列平台公司应该更加多地和外国相关铁路公司合作,这些外国铁路公司本身应该是其国家铁路公司的一部分。这将有助于排除中间商,因为中间商会在运输过程中赚取差价利润。比如,如果中国的班列平台公司有兴趣,在俄罗斯段他们应该直接与俄铁合作,如果有货物去欧洲比如德国,他们可以与德国铁路联系。如果是一个经过若干国家的线路,则可以是由相关国家铁路旗下的物流公司共同参与操作的项目。这样的运作模式将使得价格构成变得透明,如同我刚才解释的,排除了整个链条中不必要的中间商,由此也可以增加每个相应操作环节的承运人的责任感,客户将有直观的感受,哪一段除了问题,谁该为此负责。如此一来,整个服务的水平也可以得到提高,而这个对于中国的客户是非常重要的。

We believe that for state platform companies of China it is more logical to work with foreign companies, which are the part of national railway holdings. This allows them to exclude middlemen, who increase rates by adding their margin, from transport process. Thus, in case Chinese companies are interested in, for example, transit across Russia, they should work with the RZD Holding and if they need to ship cargo, for instance, to Germany, they need to turn to Deutsche Bahn. If this is a complex shipment, it should be fulfilled by a consortium of logistics operators of national railways. Meeting these conditions will allow to make rates transparent and, as I have mentioned above, will exclude unnecessary parts of the chains. The absence of middlemen will also increase the responsibility of all operators of the transport process, and clients will get a better idea, which party is responsible for what. This, in turn, will influence the quality of logistics services, which is extremely important for Chinese consignors.

这也是为何我们俄铁物流向中国的班列平台公司提供我们自己的服务,增加来自以及发往中国的货物。这些服务使得我们的客人可以从俄罗斯境内任何地点不仅仅以铁路运输,还可以任何运输方式发送、处理、投递货物。此外,为了进一步发展过境业务,我们将继续与沿线国家铁路公司深化合作关系,包括德国铁路、芬兰铁路、波兰铁路以及其他国家铁路公司。

That is why RZD Logistics will offer Chinese platform companies its own logistics services as a way to increase shipments to China and from China. These services will allow them to deliver, process and send cargo to/from any point in Russia, not only by rail, but by any mode of transport.  Moreover, in order to increase the volume of transit shipments we will continue to further deepen cooperation with such holdings of the national railways, as the above mentioned Deutsche Bahn, Finnish VR, Polish PKP and many others.

瓦连季克维亚切斯拉夫背景介绍:

俄铁物流全球首席执行官及董事会成员,同时担任俄铁物流在拉脱维亚的合资企业EURO RAIL TRANS董事会主席、俄铁物流下属公司远东陆桥董事会成员、俄铁总公司控股公司捷富凯GEFCO监事会成员、俄罗斯铁路下属公司俄罗斯联邦货运委员会以及其运输与物流分委员会成员。受过运输组织和交通管理高等教育。从2004年起在Globaltrans集团公司担任领导岗位,其中包括NEW FREIGHT FORWARDING担任第一副总裁、北科运有限责任公司担任第一副总裁(2014年该公司被改组成为Globaltrans管理有限责任公司)。

从2016年1月任俄罗斯铁路物流股份公司的第一副总裁。从2016年6月1日任俄罗斯铁路物流股份公司代首席执行官。从2016年8月19日起正式任俄罗斯铁路物流股份公司的全球首席执行官。

俄铁物流背景:

俄罗斯铁路物流股份公司是俄罗斯铁路国立控股公司下属公司,成立于2010年11月19日。专门负责在俄铁总公司框架内发展第三方多式联运服务,是俄铁总公司指定的过境俄罗斯业务的对接窗口,公司在2016-2018三年内操作的中欧班列过境俄罗斯集装箱货运量超过285000TEU,操作覆盖满洲里/后贝加尔、二连浩特/扎门乌德、阿拉山口/多斯特克三个中欧班列主要过境口岸。俄铁物流同时也操作中俄、中国与白俄罗斯间的铁路运输业务,包括中国各地与莫斯科地区的来回程服务,俄罗斯西伯利亚地区发往中国的木材回程班列、中国与白俄罗斯间的去回程业务等。公司不仅仅提供铁路集装箱运输业务,亦提供诸如大件、汽车整车、铁路车皮、冷链、小包配送服务。如,2018年7月,俄铁物流与中铁快运分别受俄铁总公司与中铁总公司指定,开通了中俄间国际列车行李车货运服务,以落实中俄两国铁路部门关于发展中俄间高速货运的协议。俄铁物流作为俄国家铁路专门负责第三方物流的部门,与俄罗斯国家出口中心一起负责俄罗斯政府关于促进俄罗斯农产品对华出口的项目,并且于2018年11月与俄罗斯出口中心联合参加了首届中国国际进口博览会。俄罗斯铁路物流股份公司是俄罗斯以及独联体地区最大的多式联运物流服务提供商,公司在俄罗斯有33个分公司和独立部门、5个子公司和境外投资企业,超过一千名员工。在中国,俄铁物流是渝新欧(重庆)物流有限公司的境外股东之一。

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